Elections in Great Britain

1. The maximum life of the House of Commons has been restricted to five years since the Parliament Act 1911. The franchise (right to vote) became universal for men in the nineteenth century. Women's suffrage came in two stages (1918 and 1928).

2. For parliamentary elections the United Kingdom is divided into 650 constituencies of Elections in Great Britain roughly equal population. The average constituency contains about 60,000 registered votes. Any British citizen from the age of 18 registered as an elector for the constituency elects a single member to the House of Commons.

3. Voting is on the same day (usually on Thursday) in all constituencies, and the voting Elections in Great Britain stations are open from 7 in the morning till 9 at night. Each voter has only one vote, if he knows that he will be unable to vote, because he is ill or has moved away or must be away on business, he may apply in advance to be allowed to Elections in Great Britain send his vote by post. Voting is not compulsory. But in the autumn of each year every householder is obliged by law to enter on the register of electors the name of every resident who is entitled to vote. Much work is done to ensure that the register is complete Elections in Great Britain and accurate. It's only possible to vote at the polling station appropriate to one's address.

4. As in Britain the political scene is dominated by the Conservatives and the Labour Party, in every constituency each of these parties has a local organization whose first task is to choose Elections in Great Britain the candidate and which then helps him to conduct his local campaign. Any British subject can be nominated as a candidate, there is no need to live in the area, though peers, clergymen, lunatics and felons in prison are disqualified from sitting in the House of Commons.

5. There are Elections in Great Britain usually more than two candidates for each seat. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected. This practice is known as the majority electoral system.

1. How often are the elections held in Great Britain?

2. How many constituencies are there in the United Kingdom?

3. re electors allowed to vote by Elections in Great Britain post?

4. Is voting compulsory?

5. Who can be nominated a candidate at the election?

6. What's «the majority electoral system»?

II. Письменно переведите 2-й и 4-й абзацы текста.

III. По суффиксу обусловьте и отберите: 1) существительные. 2) прилагательные, 3) глаголы, 4) наречия:

Restriction, universal, parliamentary, elections, roughly, population, equally, constituency, Parliament, station, voter Elections in Great Britain, compulsory, householder, elector, accurate, appropriate, organization, conservative, local, majority, electoral, broaden.

IV. Обусловьте видо-временные формы глаголов в последующих предложениях.

1. People did not realize the importance of this problem a few years ago. 2. Only by the beginning of the 20th century the actual evidence of the strength of the British labour Elections in Great Britain movement had appeared. 3. I think he has achieved great success in his studies. 4. Economic cooperation with foreign countries is gaining a growing importance now. 5. We shall discuss new aspects of privatization at the next seminar.

V. Преобразуйте предложения из реального залога в страдательный.

1. The Parliament Act 1911 has Elections in Great Britain restricted the life of the House of Commons. 2. Electoral law divides the United Kingdom into 650 constituencies. 3. Each constituency will elect a single member to the House of Commons. 4. The authorities allowed their electors to send votes by post. 5. The committee is still discussing the bill.

VI. Переведите предложения Elections in Great Britain, содержащие модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Any British citizen from the age of 18 can be registered as an elector for the constituency. 2. If a person is unable to vote because he is ill he may be allowed to vote by post. 3. To be a candidate a person needn't live Elections in Great Britain in the area. 4. Every householder must enter on the register of electors the names of all residents who can vote. 5. During the cold war Europe had to choose between another war or peaceful coexistence. 6. Each member of the General Assembly is to vote only once.

VIII. Изберите необходимое местоимение из данных Elections in Great Britain в скобках.

1. At present (some, any) person knows almost everything about this phenomenon. 2. He is absent today. I'm afraid (something, anything) has happened to him. 3. (Some, any) centuries ago people did not know (anything, nothing) about electricity. 4. I'm sorry, I couldn't find (something, anything Elections in Great Britain) in this article.

IX. Поставьте сказуемое в придаточных предложениях в подходящую видо-временную форму, беря во внимание правила согласования времен.

1. She said she (to be) a first-year student of the Law Faculty.

2. They hoped they (to become) qualified specialists in future.

3. My friend told me he already (to translate Elections in Great Britain) the article.

4. I knew he (to be going) on a business trip.


UNIT III

AGENTS OF THE LAW

Section I. TOPICAL VOCABULARY

Index
abolish [ 'b lı ] v отменять accused [ 'kju:zd] а обвиняемый acquit [ 'kwıt] v оправдывать appear [ 'pı ] v выступать в суде appearance [ 'pı r ns] n возникновение Elections in Great Britain, явка в трибунал bar [bα:] n адвокатура case [keıs] n судебное дело charge [t α:d ] n обвинение to move a charge выдвинуть обвинение civil ['sıvıl] а штатский convict [k n'vıkt] v осудить counsel ['kauns l] n участвующий в деле юрист counsel for the defence заступник обвиняемого counsel Elections in Great Britain for the prosecution обвинитель crime [kraım] n грех; преступность petty crime мелкое грех criminal ['krımınl] а уголовный, криминальный criminal proceeding уголовный процесс cross-examine ['kr sıg 'zæmın] v вести перекрестный допрос deal (with) v иметь дело (с чем-л., кем-л Elections in Great Britain.), рассматривать to deal with a caseвести процесс (дело) defend [dı'fend] v защищать (ся) defendant [dı'fend nt] n обвиняемый, ответчик depend [dı'pend] (on, upon) v зависеть dependence [dı'pend ns] n зависимость dependent [dı'pend nt] а зависимый determine [dı't :mın] v устанавливать, определять discharge [dıs Elections in Great Britain't α:d ] прекращать уголовное преследование evidence ['evıd( )ns] n подтверждение; свидетельские показания fine [faın] n штраф guarantee [,gær( )n'ti:] v гарантировать imprisonment [ım'prıznm nt] n тюремное заключение, содержание под стражей life imprisonment бессрочное заключение inflict [ın'flıkt] v налагать (наказание и Elections in Great Britain т.п.) to inflict punishment назначать наказание institute ['ınstıtju:t] v устанавливать, учреждать; начинать (следствие и т.п.) to institute proceedings (case) возбуждать дело judiciary [d u:'dı ı rı] n трибунал, судебная власть juror ['d u r ] n присяжный заседатель jury ['d u rı] n трибунал присяжных lawyer ['l Elections in Great Britain :je] n юрист, юрист legal ['li:g l] а правовой murder ['m :d ] n убийство (намеренное) obligation [ blı'geı ( )n] n обязательство offence [ 'fens] n правонарушение, грех indictable offence грех, преследуемое по обвинительно- му акту offend [ 'fend] v совершить грех offender [ 'fend ] n правонарушитель, правонарушитель penalty ['pen ltı] n Elections in Great Britain наказание; штраф plaintiff [pleıntıf] n истец plead ['pli:d] v делать заявление to plead guilty признать себя виноватым to plead not guilty заявлять о собственной невиновности preventive[prı'ventıv] а предупредительный, превентивный preventive detention превентивное заключение proceed [pr 'si:d] v завлекать к суду; возбуждать Elections in Great Britain процесс proceedings [pr 'si:dıŋz] n процессуальное действие, процесс, судопроизводство prosecute ['pr sıkju:t] v преследовать в судебном порядке prosecution [,pr sı'kju: ( )n] n судебное преследование witness for the prosecution очевидец обвинения либо очевидец со стороны истца punish ['рΛnı ] v наказывать, наказывать punishment ['p Elections in Great BritainΛnı m nt] n наказание refer [rı'f :] v отсылать; передавать на рассмотрение represent [,reprı'zent] v представлять retire [rı'taı ] v уходить в отставку retry [rın'traı] v повторно разбирать дело select [sı'lekt] и отбирать, выбирать sentence ['sent ns] n приговор, наказание sentence v приговаривать, осуждать sue Elections in Great Britain [sju:] v предъявлять иск summarize ['sΛm raız] v резюмировать, подводить результат summon ['sΛm n] v вызывать в трибунал summons ['sΛm nz] n судебная повестка, уведомление ответчика о предъявленном иске supervise ['sjup vaız] v следить; производить надзор trial ['traı l] n суд, судебное разбирательство Elections in Great Britain undertake ['Λnd ,teık] v решать verdict ['v :dıkt] n решение суда присяжных, вердикт to return a verdict выносить вердикт violate ['vai leıt] n нарушать (право, закон) will [wıl] n завещание to make a will составить завещание witness ['wıtnıs] n очевидец С Т2 T1 С С Elections in Great Britain T1 С T1 T2 T1 T1 С В Т2 D D T1 B A Т2 B A A T1 B T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 A A B C C A A D C D D T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 D Elections in Great Britain D D T1 T1 T1 D D С С В T1 T1 T1 В T1 T1 D T1 А T1 T1 D Т2 Т2 Т2

Section II. READING MATERIAL

TEXT A. THE LEGAL PROFESSION

Task: read the text, translate it into Russian in written form.

The court system is dependent upon Elections in Great Britain the legal profession to make it work. Although individuals can institute cases and defend them normally lawyers do this job for them. The legal profession is the normal source of judicial personnel for any court system.

England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs Elections in Great Britain in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers1. This division of the legal profession is due mainly to historical causes. Each branch has its own characteristic functions and a separate governing body.

The division has a number of significant impacts upon the judicial system. It Elections in Great Britain is the main reason for the separation between civil and criminal courts. It also has a significant impact upon judicial appointments.

The traditional picture of the English lawyer is that the solicitor is the general practitioner, confined mainly to the office. The solicitor is the legal adviser Elections in Great Britain of the public. Members of the public are able to call at a solicitor's office and seek his advice in a personal interview. The barrister is the specialist adviser much of whose time is taken up with court-room appearance. A barrister can only be consulted indirectly through a solicitor Elections in Great Britain. Today however the lines of demarcation are blurred.

There is approximately one solicitor to every 1300 of the population, with considerable regional and local variations. There is a heavy concentration in commercial centres. The ratio for barristers is about one per every 10,000. Taking the legal profession as a Elections in Great Britain whole (38,500), there is one practising lawyer per 1200 people. This compares with about one lawyer per 600 in the USA. But a lot of work in English solicitors' offices is undertaken by managing clerks, now called «legal executives»2, who are a third type of lawyers. (Legal executives now have their Elections in Great Britain own professional and examining body — «the Institute of Legal Executives»).

Notes:

1 solicitor — солиситор, стряпчий (юрист, консультирующий клиентов, организации и конторы; подготавливает дела для барристеров) barrister — барристер (юрист, имеющий право выступать в высших судах)

2"legal executives" - легитимные исполнители (персонал, нанимаемый солиситорами. клерки)

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Read the international words and guess their Elections in Great Britain meaning. Mind the stress.

'system 'barrister 'function 'specialist 'interview pro'fession so'licitor his'torical tra'ditional com'mercial indi'vidual demar'cation characte'ristic person'nel concen'tration

Ex. 2. Memorize the following pairs of derivatives:

N → Adj Adj → Adv V → N
history – historical tradition - traditional region - regional commerce Elections in Great Britain - commercial profession - professional normal – normally main - mainly indirect - indirectly approximate – approximately separate - separately execute – execution concentrate - concentration demarcate - demarcation divide – division appear - appearance

Ex. 3. Transform as in the models:

Model 1: to interpret the law — interpretation of the law

to divide the legal profession; to institute a case; to appoint judges; to Elections in Great Britain select magistrates; to determine the facts;

Model2: office of the solicitor — the solicitor's office

advice of the solicitor; functions of the jury; summing up of the judge; Law Officer of the Government;

Model 3: system of court — court system

judges of High Court; officers of police; departments of government; system of law Elections in Great Britain.

Ex. 4. Match English and Russian equivalents:

1. court system 2. to institute a case 3. legal profession 4. historical cause 5. characteristic functions 6. to seek advice 7. legal adviser 8. court-room appearance 9. heavy concentration 10. personal interview а. соответствующие функции b. юридическая профессия с. обратиться за советом d. выступление в суде е. личная беседа f. судебная Elections in Great Britain система g. огромное количество h. возбудить дело i. историческая причина j. юрисконсульт, советник по правовым вопросам

Ex. 5. Choose the right word or the word-combination.

1. The court system is dependent upon the ... .

a) legal system b) governing body c) legal profession

2. England is almost ... in having two different kinds of Elections in Great Britain lawyers.

a) characteristic b) unique c) historical

3. The division of the legal profession is due to the ... .

a) governing body b) characteristic functions c) historical causes

4. Each branch has its own characteristic functions and a separate ... body.

a) governing b) examining c) executive

5. A lot of work in English solicitors' offices is undertaken Elections in Great Britain by ... .

a) solicitors b) legal executives c) barristers

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences:

1. The court system is dependent upon ... .2. The- legal profession is the source of judicial personnel for .3. The two kinds of lawyers are ... . 4. The solicitor is ... . 5. The barrister is … .

Ex. 7. Insert the necessary preposition.

of, due Elections in Great Britain to, at, in, upon, through

1. The court system is dependent ... the legal profession to make it work. 2. England is unique ... having two different kinds of lawyers. 3. This division of the legal profession is ... ... historical causes. 4. Members ... the public are able to call ... a solicitor's office. 5. A barrister can only Elections in Great Britain be consulted indirectly ... a solicitor.

Ex. 8. Mark the statements that are true:

1. The court system is independent of the legal profession. 2. England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers: solicitors and barristers. 3. The solicitor is the legal adviser of the public much of whose time is Elections in Great Britain taken up with court-room appearance. 4. There is a heavy concentration of barristers in commercial centres. 5. A lot of work in English solicitors' offices is undertaken by «legal executives». 6. Taking the legal profession as a whole, there is one practising lawyer per 1200 people.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What is Elections in Great Britain the court system dependent upon? 2. The division of the legal profession is due mainly to historical causes, isn't it? 3. What are the two kinds of lawyers in England? 4. Are solicitors mostly concentrated in towns? 5. What is a third type of lawyers?

Ex. 10. Give a short summary of the Elections in Great Britain text.

TEXT B. JUDGES

Task: read the text, find the answers to the questions given below.

The judge is the presiding officer of the court. The statutory basis for the appointment of judges dates from the Act of Settlement 17001.

Judges are not themselves a separate profession: they are barristers who Elections in Great Britain have been elevated to the bench2, itself a name derived from the part of the Court where they sit.

The judge decides the interpretation of the law. After all the evidence has been given the judge summarizes the case, both law and facts, for the jury. This is called Elections in Great Britain his summing up.

Judges cannot be removed from office on account of political considerations - the independence of the judiciary is, at least theoretically, guaranteed.

The professional judges, «High Court Judges», deal with the most serious crimes. They are paid salaries by the state. Alongside with professional judges there are Elections in Great Britain unpaid judges. They are called «Magistrates» or «Justices of the Peace» (JPs)3 They are ordinary .citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have «sound common sense4» and understanding of their fellow human beings. They give up their time voluntarily Elections in Great Britain.

Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from different professions and social classes.

The work of the Magistrates' Courts5 throughout the country depends on the unpaid Elections in Great Britain services of JPs.

Notes:

1 Act of Settlement — Акт о престолонаследии (облек Ганноверскую династию правом престолонаследия, закрепив британский престол за протестантами).

2 ...be elevated to the bench — возвысить до положения судьи (букв. скамья, употребляется в собирательном смысле по отношению к арбитрам либо магистратам в суде).

3 Magistrate, Justice of the Peace Elections in Great Britain (JP) — арбитр, мировой арбитр.

4 "Sound common sense" — (зд.) чувство здравого смысла

5 Magistrates' Court — трибунал магистратов, мировой трибунал (рассматривает дела о маленьких грехах).

1. Are judges themselves a separate profession?

2. What is judge's summing up?

3. What do judges deal with?

4. Are magistrates paid salaries?

5. Who are magistrates selected by?

6. What does the Elections in Great Britain work of Magistrates' Courts depend on?

TEXT C. JURIES

Task: read the text, get ready to render its contents in Russian.

The use of the jury in English law stretches far into history, the modern English jury now owes its statutory existence to the Juries Act 1974. To qualify Elections in Great Britain for jury service it is necessary to be a registered elector between the ages of 18 and 65 (the property qualification for jurors was abolished). All those people connected with the law by way of occupation (including ex-prisoners) are ineligible to jury service, as well as the clergy and the mentally ill Elections in Great Britain. Barristers, solicitors and police officers must have retired from that work for a minimum of ten years. The call to jury service is regarded as an obligation. A jury is normally composed of twelve persons whose names have been selected at random1 from the list of qualified jurors for Elections in Great Britain the area. Its verdict must be unanimous (it is essentially one of «guilty» or «not guilty») and, in the event of failure to reach agreement, the case is retried before another jury. Only 6 - 7% of jury decisions are by a majority verdict.

Juries most frequently appear in criminal cases in Elections in Great Britain the Crown Courts. The function of the jury is to determine the facts, having heard the judge's summing up and his directions on questions of law.

Counsel for the defence or the defendant have the right to object to jurors without giving reasons, the maximum Elections in Great Britain number of peremptory challenging2 being reduced to three.

Notes:

1 at random — наобум, случаем

2 peremptory challenging — отвод без указания предпосылки

TEXT D. THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL AND THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS

Task: read the text and say what responsibilities of the Attorney-General and Director of Public Prosecutions are.

The Attorney-General1 is Elections in Great Britain the Government's chief Law Officer and his deputy is the Solicitor-General2. They are primarily concerned with representing the Crown in Courts. The Attorney-General advises the Government on legislative proposals and on criminal proceedings which have a political or public element. He may take advice from his colleagues in Elections in Great Britain the Government but he cannot be instructed by them.

The Attorney-General is a member of Government, he is not actually a member of the Cabinet itself.

The Attorney-General has the power to stop proceedings for any indictable offence. He has certain administrative functions of which the most important Elections in Great Britain is the control of the Director of Public Prosecutions3.

The DPP's office was established under the Prosecution of Offences Act 1879. The Director undertakes about 7,000 prosecutions a year himself and is constantly required to give advice to the police, the main prosecuting agencies, as well as to central government Elections in Great Britain departments and magistrates clerks.

Offences which must be referred to the DPP include murder; buggery; impeding an arrest or prosecution; certain violations of the Fair Trading, firearms, the ill-treatment of mental patients.

Offences which must be referred to the Attorney-General include corruption; possessing explosive substances; hijacking Elections in Great Britain; and breaches of the Official Secrets Act.

Notes:

1 Attorney-General — генеральный прокурор (министерский пост)

2 Solicitor-General — генеральный стряпчий (фактический заместитель генерального прокурора, член правительства)

3 Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) — директор муниципального обвинения (главный прокурор, выступает как обвинитель по всем принципиальным делам).

Section III. LEXICAL-GRAMMAR TESTS

Для того Elections in Great Britain, чтоб выполнить контрольные работы, нужно усвоить последующий грамматический материал:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола реального и страдательного залога (повторение).

2. Неличные формы глагола (инфинитив, причастие, герундий) и конструкции с ними.

3. Сослагательное наклонение. Типы условных предложений.

4. Употребление местоимений it и one.

5. Усилительная конструкция it is ... that.

6. Типы придаточных предложений. Союзное и бессоюзное подчинение Elections in Great Britain.

TEST I

I. Прочтите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы, последующие за ним.


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